Additional Resources


Ainsworth, S. (2007). Hollywood smiles: aesthetics in dentistry. Dental Nursing, 3(5), 268–270.

Ai, S., Ishikawa, T., & Seino, A. (1965). “Ohaguro” traditional tooth staining custom in Japan. International dental journal, 15(4), 426–441.

Arcini, C. (2005). The Vikings bare their filed teeth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 128(4), 727–733.

Atienza, A. A. (2014). Early Aesthetic Dentistry in the Philippines: An Anthropological Perspective. ACTA MEDICA PHILIPPINA, 48(1), 68–72.

Barnes, D. M. (2010). Dental Modification: An Anthropological Perspective (Thesis).

Becker, M. J., & Turfa, J. M. (2017). The Etruscans and the History of Dentistry: The Golden Smile through the Ages (Routledge Monographs in Classical Studies) (1st ed.). Routledge.

Benedix, D. C. (1998). A Biocultural Analysis of Intentional Dental Modifications (Master’s dissertation). University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Berkmoes, R. V. (2010). Indonesia. Lonely Planet.

Blakely, R., & Beck, L. (1984). TOOTH-TOOL USE VERSUS DENTAL MUTILATION: A CASE STUDY FROM THE PREHISTORIC SOUTHEAST. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, 9(2), 269-284. Retrieved July 16, 2020, from

Bradford, P. V., & Blume, H. (1992). Ota Benga: The Pygmy in the Zoo (1st ed.). St Martins Pr.

Fauchard, P. (1786). LE CHIRURGIEN DENTISTE, OU TRAITÉ DES DENTS. Chez SERVIERES, Libraire rue Saint-Jean-de-Beauvais.

From the archive: Blacksmiths and dentistry. (2014). British Dental Journal, 216(8), 439.

H., H. U. (1916). THE BAGOBO: Some Notes on a Lately Acquired Collection. Penn Museum Journal, 7(3), 182–194.

Hall, J. R. (2018, January 11). Etruscan women – Ostentatious display and social power. Ancient World Magazine.

Joyce, K. (2018, April 25). Teeth jewelry: The latest trend that’s all the rage with celebrities. Fox News.

Martens, M. (2014). Tooth transfigurement in Indonesia by Michael Martens 2013 Sulang Language Data and Working Papers : Topics in Lexicography.

Miller, M. (2009). Extreme Makeover. Abstracts, 62(1), 1.

Pinchi, V., Barbieri, P., Pradella, F., Focardi, M., Bartolini, V., & Norelli, G.-A. (2015). Dental Ritual Mutilations and Forensic Odontologist Practice: a Review of the Literature. Acta Stomatologica Croatica, 49(1), 3–13.

Polo, M., & Latham, R. (1958). The Travels of Marco Polo (Reissue ed.). Penguin Classics.

Róheim, G. (1942). Transition Rites. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 11(3), 336–374.

Schwartzberg, L. (2014). The Ancient History of Grills. VICE.

Singer, R. (1953). ARTIFICIAL DEFORMATION OF TEETH: A PRELIMINARY REPORT. Suid·Afrikaanse Joernaal van LVetenskap, 116–122.

The Last Journals of David Livingstone in Central Africa, from 1865 to his Death, Continued by a Narrative of his last moments and sufferings, obtained from his faithful servants, Chuma and Susi. (1874). Nature, 11(269), 142–145.

The Story of the Creation. (1997). Philippine Folk Tales.

Vukovic, A., Bajsman, A., Zukic, S., & Secic, S. (2009). Cosmetic dentistry in ancient times – a short review. Bulletin of the International Association for Paleodontology, 3(2), 9–12.

Whittington, S. P. L., Reed, D. M., Wright, L. E., Gerry, J. P., Jacobi, K. P., Danforth, M. E., Storey, R., Webster, D. L., Armstrong, C., Chase, D. Z., Cohen, M. N., Cook, D. C., Angel, D. A., Ferrell, R. E., Gettelman, K. D., Havill, L. M., Krueger, H. W., Olivares, N. M., Marquez, L., … Buikstra, J. E. (2006). Bones of the Maya: Studies of Ancient Skeletons (1st Edition). University Alabama Press.

Wynbrandt, J. (2000). The Excruciating History of Dentistry: Toothsome Tales & Oral Oddities from Babylon to Braces (1st ed.). St. Martin’s Griffin.

Zumbroich, T. J., & Salvador-Amore, A. (2010). Gold work, filing and blackened teeth: Dental modifications in Luzon. The Cordillera Review, 2(2), 3–40.

Related Videos

National Geographic. (2011, April 28). Teeth Chiseling | National Geographic [Video]. YouTube.

The BDA. (2018, May 8). The Mayan Tooth [Video]. YouTube.

VPRO Metropolis. (2012, August 27). Black and filed teeth in the Philippines – vpro Metropolis [Video]. YouTube.

VICE. (2019, June 4). The Balinese Tradition of Filing Teeth [Video]. YouTube.

Guest Curator Bio

Celita Summa is a graduate of Florida State University with a bachelor’s degree in Editing, Writing, and Media. She is interested in archival work, history, and literature, and created this online exhibition during a Curatorial Research internship at the museum. When she’s not at work, she can be found photographing the streets of Italy or developing her podcast.


Tuesday - Friday: 10am to 4pm


31 S. Greene St. Baltimore, MD 21201



The Dr. Samuel D. Harris National Museum of Dentistry is an auxiliary enterprise of the University of Maryland, School of Dentistry at the University of Maryland, Baltimore.

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